Volume 6, Issue 2, December 2020, Page: 23-28
The Effects of Aqueous Leave Extract of Moringa oleifera on the Hippocamppal Histology of Aluminium Chloride-Induced Alzheimer’s Disease in Adult Wistar Rats
Ignatius Ikemefuna Ozor, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria
Zita Njideka Agwag, Department of Nursing, Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria
Elizabeth Finbarrs-Bello, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria
Onyinye Mary Ozioko, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria
Uche Sebastine Oziok o, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria
Naza Christian Iruka, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria
Received: Jul. 30, 2020;       Accepted: Aug. 17, 2020;       Published: Sep. 10, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijnpt.20200602.12      View  31      Downloads  7
Abstract
Introduction: Consumption of antioxidant-rich foods and polyphenol treatment can enhance cognitive performance in elderly subjects. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating the effects of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves on the hippocampus of aluminium chloride-induced alzheimer’s disease in adult wistar rats. Method: Twenty (20) healthy adult male wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus), weighing 180-240g were divided into five (5) groups of four (4) animals each. Group one served as normal control group and was given free access to normal saline for 21days, group 2 was given 400 mg/kg of Moringa extract only for 21 days, group 3 was given 200 mg/kg of AlCl3 for 21days. Group 4 which served as treatment group was given co-treatment of Moringa extract and AlCl3 for 21 days while groups 5 which served as standard drug group received co-treatment of Simvastatin and AlCl3 for 21 days. Parameters studied include; hippocampal CA3 histopathology, and CA3 histochemical changes after H&E and Congo red stains. Results: This study revealed that aqueous leaves extract of Moringa oleifera and standard drug-Simvastatin- at both Histopathological and histochemical parameter was effective. Moringa aqueous extracts ameliorated the reported histochemical and histopathological effects of AlCl3 in treated rats. Conclusion: This study reveals that the tested extracts provided efficiently a neuroprotective effect against Alzheimer’s disease. The Moringa extract group and Simvastatin group showed effectiveness in treatment of neurodegenerative disease. This shows that Moringa extract is an alternative remedy to Simvastatin in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.
Keywords
Alzheimer’s Disease, Hippocampus, Moringa oleifera
To cite this article
Ignatius Ikemefuna Ozor, Zita Njideka Agwag, Elizabeth Finbarrs-Bello, Onyinye Mary Ozioko, Uche Sebastine Oziok o, Naza Christian Iruka, The Effects of Aqueous Leave Extract of Moringa oleifera on the Hippocamppal Histology of Aluminium Chloride-Induced Alzheimer’s Disease in Adult Wistar Rats, International Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2020, pp. 23-28. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnpt.20200602.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Alzheimer’s Disease International, (2018). World Alzheimer ReportsAlzheimer’sDiseaseInternational. Availableat: https://www.alz.co.uk/research/world-report (accessed October 30, 2019).
[2]
Nussbaum RL, Ellis CE. 2003 Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. N Engl J Med; 348: 1356-64.
[3]
Mattson, M. P. 2004. Pathways towards and away from alzheimer's disease. Nature. 430 (7000) 631-639.
[4]
Da Rocha, M. D., Viegas, F. P., Campos, H. C., Nicastro, P. C., Fossaluzza, P. C., Fraga, C. A., Barreiro, E. J., & Viegas, C., Jr (2011). The role of natural products in the discovery of new drug candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders II: Alzheimer's disease. CNS & neurological disorders drug targets, 10 (2), 251–270.
[5]
Grossberg G. T. 2003. Cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: getting on and staying on. Current therapeutic research, clinical and experimental, 64 (4), 216-235. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0011-393X(03)00059-6.
[6]
Gilbert, P. E., Brushfield, A. M. 2009. The role of the CA3 hippocampal subregion in spatial memory: A process oriented behavioral assessment. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 33, 774-81.
[7]
Last RJ. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Churchil-Livingstone; 1999. Hippocampal anantomy; p. 460.
[8]
Hippocampus & Limbic circuit. 39th ed. Elsevier's Sciences; 2003. Grey's Anatomy; pp. 404-10.
[9]
Vyas, Y., Montgomery, J. M., & Cheyne, J. E. (2020). Hippocampal Deficits in Amyloid-β-Related Rodent Models of Alzheimer's Disease. Frontiers in neuroscience, 14, 266.
[10]
X. Wang, Y. Yu, W. Zhao et al., 2018 “Altered whole-brain structural covariance of the hippocampal subfields in subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment and amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients,” Frontiers in Neurology, vol. 9, p. 342.
[11]
J. Xue, H. Guo, Y. Gao et al., 2019 “Altered directed functional connectivity of the hippocampus in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: a resting-state fMRI study,” Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, vol. 11, p. 326.
[12]
Balkissoon, R. 2006. A 26-year-old welder with severe nonreversible obstructive lung disease. COFD. 3, 63-67.
[13]
Alvarez-Ayuso, E., A Garcia-Sanchez and X Querol. 2007. Adsorption of Cr (VI) from synthetic solutions and electroplating wastewaters on amorphous aluminium oxide. J. Hazard. 142, 191-198.
[14]
He, S., Zhang, A., Niu, Q., Wang, S., and Chen, Y. 2003. Alteration of neurobehavioral and autonomic nervous function in aluminum electrolytic workers. Health Res. 32, 177-179.
[15]
Choueair, N., Laporte, V., Levy, R., Tranchant, C., Gies, J. P., and Poindron, P. 2006. The role of calcium and magnesium ions in uptake of amyloid peptides by microglial cells. Int. J. Immunopathol. Pharmacol. 19, 683-696 [16] Jiang, F., Li, W. P., Kwiecien, J., and Tumbull, J. 2006. A study of the purine derivative AIT-082 in G93A SODl transgenic mice. Int. J. Immunopathoi Pharmacol. 19, 489-498.
[16]
Jiang, F., Li, W. P., Kwiecien, J., and Tumbull, J. 2006. A study of the purine derivative AIT-082 in G93A SODl transgenic mice. Int. J. Immunopathoi Pharmacol. 19, 489-498.
[17]
Staibano, S., Mascolo, M., Tranfa, F., Salvatore, G., Mignogna, C. and Bufo, P. 2006. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in uveal melanoma: a link with clinical behaviour? Int. J. Immunopathoi Pharmacol. 19, 171-180.
[18]
Niu, Q., Niu, P., and He, S. 2004. Effect of Gastrodia elata on learning and memory impairment induced by aluminum in rats. Health Res. 33, 45-48.
[19]
Wolozin, B., Wang, S. W., Li, N. 2007. Simvastatin is associated with a reduced incidence of dementia and Parkinson's disease. BMC Med. 5, 20.
[20]
Newman, T. and Hulley, S. 1996. Carcinogenicity of lipid-lowering drugs. JAMA. 275, 55-60.
[21]
Cucchiara, B. and Kasner, S. 2001. Use of statins in CNS disorders. J Neurol Sci. 187, 81-9.
[22]
Ostrowski, S. M. 2016. Simvastatin inhibits protein isoprenylation in the brain. Neuroscience 329, 264-274,
[23]
Pedrini, S. 2005. Modulation of statin-activated shedding of Alzheimer APP ectodomain by ROCK. PLoS Med. 2, e18.
[24]
Su, Bin and Chen, Xiaoyang. (2020) Current Status and Potential of Moringa oleifera Leaf as an Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feeds, Frontiers in Veterinary Science; 7 [53].
[25]
Bamishaiye EI, Olayemi FF, Awagu EF, Bamshaiye OM. Proximate and phytochemical composition of Moringa oleifera leaves at three stages of maturation. Adv J Food Sci Tech. (2011) 3: 233–7.
[26]
Ozioko OM, Ozioko US, Mba CE, Ozor II and Egwuatu D. Anxiolytic and curative effect of Solanum macrocarpon leaves extract on acetaminophen induced brain injury in adult Wistar rats. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2020; 9 (3): 205-212).
[27]
Ullah, R.; Khan, M.; Shah, S. A.; Saeed, K.; Kim, M. O. 2019, Natural antioxidant anthocyanins—A hidden therapeutic candidate in metabolic disorders with major focus in neurodegeneration. Nutrients 11, 1195.
[28]
Moneim, A. E. A. Oxidant/antioxidant imbalance and the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Curr. Alzheimer Res. 2015, 12, 335–349.
[29]
Wojsiat, J.; Zoltowska, K. M.; Laskowska-Kaszub, K.; Wojda, U. 2018; Oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in Alzheimer’s disease: Therapeutic and diagnostic prospects. Oxidative Med. Cell. Longev., 2018, 6435861.
[30]
Cicero, A. F.; Fogacci, F.; Banach, 2018 M. Botanicals and phytochemicals active on cognitive decline: The clinical evidence. Pharmacol. Res., 130, 204–212.
[31]
Phan, H. T.; Samarat, K.; Takamura, Y.; Azo-Oussou, A. F.; Nakazono, Y.; Vestergaard, M. d. C. 2019, Polyphenols modulate Alzheimer’s amyloid beta aggregation in a structure-dependent manner. Nutrients11, 756. Craggs, L., and Kalaria. R. N. 2011. “Revisiting dietary antioxidants, neurodegeneration and dementia,” NeuroReport, 22 (1), 1-3.
[32]
Ganguly, R. and Guha, D. 2008. Alteration of brain monoamines & EEG wave pattern in rat model of alzheimer's disease & protection by Moringa oleifera. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 128 (6), 744-751.
[33]
Atuadu, Vivian & Anibeze, Chike & Elizabeth, Finbarrs-bello & Esom, Emmanuel & Okoh, D.. (2019). Protective role of adansonia digitata on lead-induced neurotoxicity in the hippocampus of adult wistar rats. IBRO Reports. 7. 19. 10.1016/j.ibror.2019.09.042.
[34]
Ozor II, Ozioko OM, Ozioko US, MbaCE, Abireh IE, Blessed OC. 2020; Microanatomical and Hormonal Studies of the Effects of Aqueous Cannabis sativa Leaf Extract on the Testis of Adult Wistar Rats. SSR Inst. Int. J. Life Sci., 6 (4): 2594-2600.
[35]
Onyinye Mary Ozioko, Uche Sebastine Ozioko, Christian Ejuiwa Mba, Vivian Atuadu, Ifeanyi Anthony Egwuatu, Anayo Okoro. 2020; Curative Effect of Aqeous Leaf Extract of Solanum Macrocarpon on Acetaminophen Induced Nephrotoxicity on Adult Wistar Rats. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 9 (6), 158-172. DOI: 10.20959/wjpr20206-17650.
[36]
Ozor II, Agwagu ZN, Finbarrs-Bello E, Ozioko OM, Ozioko US, Mgbachi LC. Morphohistological Effect of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on the Hippocampus of New Born Wistar Rat. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4 (8).
[37]
Andrade-Moraes, C. H., Oliveira-Pinto, A. V., Castro-Fonseca, E., da Silva, C. G., Guimarães, D. M., Szczupak, D., Parente-Bruno, D. R., Carvalho, L. R., Polichiso, L., Gomes, B. V., Oliveira, L. M., Rodriguez, R. D., Leite, R. E., Ferretti-Rebustini, R. E., Jacob-Filho, W., Pasqualucci, C. A., Grinberg, L. T., & Lent, R. (2013). Cell number changes in Alzheimer's disease relate to dementia, not to plaques and tangles. Brain: a journal of neurology, 136 (Pt 12), 3738-3752. https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awt273).
[38]
Manuela, P., Alin, C., Ioannis, M., Dimitrios, F. & Stavros, B. 2012. Hippocampal neuronal loss in the ca1 and ca3 areas of alzheimer’s disease patients. Psychiatria Danubina. 24 (2), 152-158.
[39]
Kumar, S. E. P., Bairy, K. L., Nayak, V., Reddy, S. K., Kiran, A. and Ballal, A. 2019. Amelioration of Aluminium Chloride induced neurotoxicity by combination of Rivastigmine and Memantine with Artesunate in Albino wistar Rats. Biomed Pharmaco J. 12 (2).
[40]
Murphy, M. P., & LeVine, H., 3rd (2010). Alzheimer's disease and the amyloid-beta peptide. Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD, 19 (1), 311-323. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2010-1221.
Browse journals by subject